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ChaosVPN: Fonera Instructions

Supported Hardware

 * Fonera 2.0n


Signed Official Foneros DEV Images in this Dir (check there for Updates)

Latest ChaosVPN Fonera Image - openfly's build

 * Foneros beta 2
 * ChaosVPN 2.12
 * Tinc 1.0.18

Source Available here at your own peril.


Step 1

Been able to access your Fonera 2.0n router over ssh. skip step 2.

Step 2 - Flash to Official Dev Image go get SSH working

you will need to reflash your stock fonera with a DEV image.

I've included a link to a tested DEV image in the Software section.
You download the .tgz of the image.
Do not untar or ungzip it.
Simply access the administrative web interface on the device.
Head to the system / settings section.
Upload the tarball to the device to start the reflash.
A progress bar should appear to indicate the device is being flashed.
Do not unpower the device until the flash has completed.

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Do not unpower the device until the flash has completed.

Upon the completion of a flash, the system should automatically reboot itself.
Please give it time to do so.
There have been instances where it has hung just after a reflash, or simply acted oddly.
I've simply waited until I was certain no more was going on on the device and then gave it a quick reboot.
This can also address browser issues.

Step 3 - upload the ChaosVPN image to your Fonera

Now you can access ssh on the device.

User: Root
Password: the same as your administrative password used on the web UI.

Verify you can login correctly.

Without Internet

Once you have done so, scp (Secure CoPy) the ChaosVPN image tarball to the device.

you can use simply scp in Linux.
you can use winscp or putty in Windows.

Exampel code

scp fonera2n-chaosvpn.img admin@fonera:tmp/fonera2n-chaosvpn.img

Confirm that everything uploads nicely.
More about Secure CoPy

With Internet:

cd /tmp
wget http://www.music-piracy.com/fonera2n-chaosvpn.img

Step 4 - The flashing of the device with Backup

If you do not want to backup. (case: new Device / clean install) skip this step
The tarball as included is laid out to demonstrate how you can upgrade your device properly.
Since you won't be "upgrading" from a previous ChaosVPN instance some things are slightly different.
Let's look at what is in the tarball.


fonera2n-chaosvpn.img, and upgrade are symlinks to the image and upgrade script respectively.

fonera2n-chaosvpn.img is the image you will be upgrading to. (check the Software Seccion for newer images)

Let's look at upgrade_developer:


 VERSION=$(cat /etc/fon_version)
 # FAILSAFE=$(cat /etc/failsafe)
 DEVICE=$(cat /etc/fon_device)

 if [ "$DEVICE" = "fonera20n" ]
 uci set registered.fonreg.dev=1
 uci commit
 tar cvzf /tmp/sysupgrade.tgz /etc/passwd /etc/group /etc/dropbear /etc/samba/smbpasswd /etc/samba/secrets.tdb /etc/config/firewall /etc/config/upnpd /etc/config/umtsd /etc/config/registered /etc/config/gdata /etc/config/facebook /etc/config/flickr /etc/config/mountd /etc/config/fon /etc/config/ddns /etc/config/wizard /etc/pureftpd.pdb /etc/pureftpd.passwd /etc/config/luci_dlmanager /etc/config/twitter /etc/config /firewall /etc/tinc /etc/init.d/firewall
 mtd -j /tmp/sysupgrade.tgz -r write fonera2n-chaosvpn.img image > /dev/null 2>&1 
 return 0
 return 1

Okay so there's only 2 important lines in the script.
The tar creation call,
and the call to mtd.

What the tar creation call does, is it creates a tarball in /tmp of the fonera called "sysupgrade.tgz".
Everything you tar up into it ( using an absolute directory path ), will be saved there and deployed after the firmware is upgraded.
What this allows you to do is save settings of your device.
You will need to specify the paths of areas of the file structure you want preserved manually.

The mtd call is the upgrade call.

mtd -j /tmp/sysupgrade.tgz -r write fonera2n-chaosvpn.img image

Step 5 - The flashing of the device without Backup

The flashing of the device without Backup.
for New Device / clean install

mtd -r write fonera2n-chaosvpn.img image

Step 6 - The long waiting

Eventually this will end and the device will reboot.
This is expected. Anything else, is not.

Please do not unpower the device until you are certain the operation has completed, or are certain that anything still occurring MUST be bad.

After you login the new webUI will look like this:

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

and connecting by ssh:

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Step 7 - IP Allocation

Go to IP Range, select a range and fill out the corresponding data.
Please conform to standards.
Be sparing in your address space allocations.
You don't need a /16 for your apt.

Step 8 - Setting up TINC keys

First thing you are going to want to do is generate a keypair for your node.

tincd --net=chaos --generate-keys=2048

Hit 2 times [Enter]. Do not change the default name/location of the keys. Default it get drop in /etc/tinc/chaos/.
Make a copy in a SECURE location not on that device.

E-Mail Haegar directly, or the ChaosVPN mailing list to have your node added.

Send info such as the following:

nodename: hackerspace  ( short, no spaces, no non chars, descriptive )
network: 10.100.xxx.xxx/24 ( use the address space you allocated in the IP ranges wiki )
owner: you@youremail.com ( make this legitimate )
gatewayhost: your external address if you have a static one
network6: same as network, but for ipv6.
key: public key here 

Wait for Haegar or someone else to confirm you have been added to the VPN successfully. (it can take ~24h).

Configuring ChaosVPN

There is a chaosvpn.conf in /etc/tinc/ .
You have to change 2 things in the config:

$my_peerid		= "thenameofyournode";

$my_vpn_ip		= "172.31.x.x";

Once you have filled out your chaosvpn.conf file correctly.

Checking to see if it worked

Please give ChaosVPN a testrun. After you are you get the validation of the adding to the ChaosVPN.


Hope no error appears.

netstat -nr

You should see a hell of a lot of routes using the chaos_vpn interface. This is good.

Check /etc/tinc/chaos/hosts/ see if a whole bunch of node info has appeared.

Wait several minutes from first execution then test ping some of the "test ping" addresses as defined in the IP Ranges wiki page. is the NYC Resistor fonera. See if you can ping it from the router.

If all went well you are now pinging.
Get someone to ping you back. Ask in the IRC Channel
You now have a functional node.

Tips and Tricks

Here you can add Tips and Tricks for a better use of fonera

Start ChaosVPN on startup

Edit the Runlevel scripte of chaosvpn in /etc/inti.d/

#!/bin/sh /etc/rc.common
# Copyright (C) 2012 ChaosVPN


start() {
chaosvpn -d

Adding DNS for the ChaosVPN

workaround, do it client side

Adding DNS entries

Create the file /etc/hosts.local and add your DNS entries,
than edit /etc/config/dhcp under the section "config dnsmasq"

option domain   'mynodeiscool.hack'

option addnhosts        '/etc/hosts.local'

Firewall Rules

People have diverse configuration needs. You may have to make your own changes the iptables on the fonera. For me the following two iptables commands are all that is required to allow bi-directional communication from devices connected to the fonera, and the rest of the ChaosVPN.

/usr/bin/iptables -I forwarding_rule -j ACCEPT -p all -s '0/0' -d '0/0' -i 'br-lan' -o 'chaos_vpn'
/usr/bin/iptables -I forwarding_rule -j ACCEPT -p all -s '0/0' -d '0/0' -i 'chaos_vpn' -o 'br-lan'

Also you should throw ChaosVPN, and the iptables rules into /etc/init.d/ somewhere.
Add them all in the firewalls init.d script. This is probably wrong. There is probably a cleaner way.

WebUI bugfix

Change Icons/Colors for a better use download the tar file and move the files in the right dir

wget http://www.load.to/rN4FCpdLoh/webui-fix.tar
tar -xvwf webui-fix.tar
cd www
mv * ./www
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Upgrading ChaosVPN / Tinc

There are two new packages for the fonera image.

Remember to backup configurations and keys before attempting this.

To upgrade, ssh to the fonera as root:

wget http://www.music-piracy.com/chaosvpn_2.15-1_mipsel.ipk
wget http://www.music-piracy.com/tinc_1.0.21-1_mipsel.ipk
opkg install tinc_1.0.21-1_mipsel.ipk
opkg install chaosvpn_2.15-1_mipsel.ipk

md5sums of the ipks:

a9614ecf4b68908e1b77ff1101bfb13c  chaosvpn_2.15-1_mipsel.ipk
311b3c863c59e8621e5eac1a92d1e769  tinc_1.0.21-1_mipsel.ipk

Then restart chaosvpn.

pkill chaosvpn
/etc/init.d/chaosvpn start

So TINC vulnerability CVE-2013-1428 fix´d